In 1796 Napoleon Bonaparte expelled the Austrians. The city was ruled by the French and became the capital of the Cisalpine Republic (from 1796 to 1799) and later capital of the Kingdom of Italy led by the Napoleonic dynasty (from 1805 to 1814).
After the fall of Napoleon (1815), the Austrians returned to Milan, annulling its previous autonomy and giving rise to a period of political oppression and economic exploitation. This environment led intellectuals and members of the bourgeoisie to fuel conspiracies, and inspired the founding of so-called “secret societies” such as the Carboneria.
Curiosity: in 1827 the three volumes of the first version of The Betrothed were published, edited by Vincenzo Ferrario when author Alessandro Manzoni was 42 years old. The first and second volume are dated 1825, the third volume 1826. It was the revision of the first draft - Fermo and Lucia – written in 1821-23.
1848 was the year of the Milanese revolt (1st War of Independence).
Curiosity: Milanese veal cutlet or Wiener schnitzel? For many years food historians have debated the origin of the famous Milanese Veal Cutlet (or Wiener schnitzel?). Today the diatribe may seem silly or of little importance, but half a century ago it was the source of no small controversy for its evident patriotic implications. The question was resolved by the Viennese Marshal Radetzky in a letter addressed to Count Attems, affirming to have discovered the famous cutlet in Milan and describing the recipe in exacting detail.
While Radetsky was fleeing Milan, Charles Albert, King of Sardinia, who had helped the Milanese liberate the Lombardo-Veneto, declared war on Austria on the 24th of March. However his efforts did not meet with success and the foreigner returned to Milan.